Gut flora affects our immune system
In our body, many intestinal bacteria do exist similar to how there are cells. The Microbiome in the gut consists of trillions of microorganisms. Latest research results show that this community is only for digestion, but also play an important role in our immune system plays. The intestinal flora for a healthy immune system is essential, as a recent study shows.
Researchers from the University of Bern were the first to understand how certain gut bacteria, stimulate white blood cells to produce antibodies. This is an important defense process can already take place before the blood cells to meet the actual pathogen. The findings were recently presented in the prestigious scientific journal “Nature”.
How our immune system pathogen combat
For the detection of substances foreign to the body called B-cells in our immune system are responsible. The white blood cells belonging to the cells ensure that the appropriate antibodies are produced to combat the causative agents. The antibodies bind to the invading virus or bacteria to make them harmless.
What is the role of gut bacteria in the immune system play?
The research team led by Professor Stephanie Ganal-Vonarburg, and Professor Andrew Macpherson showed that intestinal bacteria play in the process of the immune system a much larger role than previously assumed. The intestines provide microbes for enrichment of B-cells and on the other, you can let the production of antibodies before the B-cells are come into contact with a pathogen.
Intestinal bacteria also in other regions of the body
A majority of the intestinal bacteria remains permanently in the gut. “A degree of Penetration into the bloodstream is, however, inevitable, because the intestine has only a single layer of cells that separate the blood vessels the Interior of the Darmrohrs of the blood, we need to pick our food,” explains Stephanie Ganal-Vonarburg. In the current research, the Team adopted for the first time, the way the intestinal bacteria, both within and outside of the intestine and the influence this has on the B-cells of the immune system.
B-cells respond to gut bacteria
Using the latest computer technology could be processed millions of genetic sequences and compared. So the reactions of the B could be documented-cells from the intestine-derived bacteria. The reactions to the bacteria seem to vary, depending on whether you are in the gut or in the bloodstream. “In both cases, the antibody repertoire is changed, but in a different way,” adds Andrew Macpherson.
“This suggests that gut bacteria control the development of our antibodies, before we get a serious infection, and that this process is certainly not random,” emphasizes the Professor.
What is the difference between the immune responses?
The researchers also found out that in the intestine, other antibody prevalence, as in the rest of the body. The bandwidth of the various antibodies that are produced in the gut, was much lower than outside of the intestine. “This means that the immune system when harmful bacteria enter the body, has a lot more opportunities to fight it, while the antibodies bind mainly in the intestine, only those harmful bacteria, which you encounter in each case,” says Ganal-Vonarburg.
In the further course of the study, the Team examined how the immune system of germ-free mice, both within and outside the gut responds to specific pathogens. In two waves, the mice with two different pathogens were brought into contact. The first excitation, the same antibodies formed in the gut and in the rest of the body to fight the pathogen. The second exciter is an astonishing event, however, showed.
Intestinal bacteria stimulate the memory of the immune system
In the intestine the antibodies to react to the second pathogen. Then, only the antibody for the second excitation was produced – “similar to when in a door, the lock will be replaced,” describes the Team process. These intestinal bacteria got into the blood, were co-produced the antibodies of the first pathogen to be equal, what is more the installation of an additional lock. “This shows that the immune system remembers different harmful types of bacteria and the risk of a blood, can prevent poisoning,” emphasises Macpherson.
“We were the first to show that not only the composition of our intestinal flora, but also the way they meet in the body on B-cells, have a different influence on their antibody repertoire, and the subsequent immunity against pathogens,” says Hai Li, one of the study’s authors. (vb)
Also read: gut flora to build up As you go.